Udhagamandalam is abbreviated as Udhagai, is a city, a municipality and the capital of the Nilgiri district in South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is also called as Ootacamund. But everywhere it is known as Ooty. In the local language of Tamil, the literary meaning of Ootaca is Otta-Cal, which meanssingle stone and the name Udhagamandalam is derived from the Toda word Othakal-mund , which means House of mountains
Ooty or Udhagamandalam rightly described as "Queen of Hill Stations". In ancient times the Nilgiri hills were part of Chera Empire, later on it fell into the hand of Ganga and then came under Hoysala dynasty in 12th century. Before coming in the hands of British in 18th century, it was ruled by Tipu Sultan under the Kingdom of Mysore.John Sullivan, the British governor of the neighbouring Coimbatore province, liked the climate of Udhagamandalam and occupied it by taking lands from the native tribes (Toda, Irumba and Badaga). British citizens bought many square kilometers in a day for the price of few meals to these tribes.The Hills were developed rapidly under British Raj, because British citizens had owned almost the entire place. Ooty was served as the summer capital of Madras presidency.
Udhagamandalam, Namil NaduOoty has covered the area of 36 sq. km. With a number of small hills and rolling hills covered with dense vegetation. It is situated at an altitude of 2,240 meters above sea level. Maximum temperature is 24.3Â°C and minimum temperature is 4.8Â°C. The climate of Ooty is salubrious. Annual rainfall of this district is 991mm.
Wetlands of Nilgiri areas are highly productive and cradles of biological diversity lands. Except the main corps like Paddy and Sorghum, it also produces, tea, areca, coffee, pepper, tapioca and cardamom. Tea estates, hotels and shops in the various visiting places are the main livelihood sources of Ooty people.
Government and Politics
A collector, who is belonging to an officer of Indian Administrative Service, is the head of the Udhamandalam. He is assisted by one Deputy Collector .
The Superintendent of police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service, is responsible for maintaining the law and order and related issues in the district.
The main languages used in Udhamandalam are Badaga, Tamil, Kannada, Hindi, Malayalam and English.
Makar Pongal in January, Thaipoosam in Elk Hill Murugan Temple, Mariamman annual festival, in February, Ooty Mariamman festval in April are the main festivals celebrated in Ooty.
Tea and Tourism festival is celebrated in the month of January, the popular flower show and fruit show is held in May at the botanical gardens every year. Tourism Department of Tamil Nadu also arranges boat races and Boat pageantry during summer vacation.
Flora and Fauna
There are several wild life Sanctuaries and preserved national forests can be easily found here. Most of the reserved forests are full of Tea and Eucalyptus trees. Mudumalai Wild Life Sanctuary, Kotagiri, Coonoor, Mukurthi Peak and National Park are the important places to find the flora and fauna of Ooty.Mundumalai Wild life sanctuary is basically a bird sanctuary, spreading in the area of 321 sq.kms. it is the first sanctuary in the southern India, with its varied terrain comprising of hills, ravines, swamps and the numerous varieties of animal and plant species.Coonoor is famous for its lush green valleys. The little town situated about 19 kilometers from Ooty. It is located on the Hulikal Ravine at an altitude of 1,800 m. this is a perfect place for the adventurous activities like, Trekking and Hiking.