In the early centuries during the reign of the Mughal emperor Jahangir, the port of Surat was used as the gateway to Makkah for pilgrims of the hajj from India's interior regions. Both the Makkai Pool and the Mughal Sarai guest house for hajjis (pilgrims) are indicators of this historical significance.
Surat is mentioned in the Sanskrit epic, the Mah?bh?rata when Lord Krishna stopped there en route from Mathura to Dwarka. According to other later Sanskrit records, the area was ruled by the Western Ch?lukyas in 610 CE, and continued to be ruled by Hindu kings until one of Qu?budd?n Aibak's generals captured it. The Parsis started to settle there in the 12th century, and added greatly to its prosperity. Local traditions state that the city was founded in the last years of the fifteenth century by a Brahman named Gopi, who called it Suryap?r, or 'City of the Sun'. In 1512 and 1530 Surat was burned and ravaged by the Portuguese who were trying to maintain influence in the area. In 1513 the Portuguese traveler, Duarte Barbosa, described Surat as an important seaport, frequented by many ships from Malabar and various parts of the world. By 1520 the name of the city was Surat.
Surat eclipsed Khambhat as the major port of western India, when Khambhat's harbour began to silt up by the end of fifteenth century. During the reigns of the Mughal emperors Akbar, Jah?ng?r and Sh?h Jah?n, Surat rose to become a chief commercial city of India and an imperial mint was established there. As the major port on the west coast of India, Surat also served as the port for the Hajj to Mecca. At the end of the 16th century, the Portuguese were undisputed masters of the Surat sea trade. There still is a picturesque fortress on the banks of the river built in 1540.
In 1608, ships from the British East India Company started docking in Surat, using it as a trade and transit point. In 1613, the British Captain Best, followed by Captain Downton, overcame Portuguese naval supremacy and obtained an imperial firman establishing a British factory at Surat following the Battle of Swally. The city was made the seat of a presidency under the British East India Company after the success of the embassy of Sir Thomas Roe to the court of emperor Jehangir. The Dutch also founded a factory.
Lawngtlai district is situated within the tropical belt. It usually received high annual rainfall during the month from May upto September. In this region the tropical wet evergreen, mixed deciduous forest and wild banana forests are found. The western part of the region Lawngtlaiis covered by a thick virgin forest. Host of skima wallichi, Banyan tree, Gulmohar tree, Gamari, Jarus, Champa and several kinds of bamboos, climbers of different kinds and many kinds of wild fruits are found in this area. Several kinds of plants and herbs which are good for making herbal medicines are also found in.
Lawngtlai District has moderate climate. Relative humidity is highest during the south-west monsoon when they are about 85%. Heavy rainfall is usually received during the month from May up to September every year. The temperature ranges from 15degree to 25 degree during winter. The average annual rainfall is about 285cm. The hottest period starts from the month of March up to August every year. During the rainy season there is heavy clouded. There is an increase of cloudiness from March onwards. A clear and cool weather starts appearing from the month of September up to January the next year.
Government and politics
The Surat Mahanagar Sewa Sadan, is responsible for the city's civic infrastructure as well as carrying out associated administrative duties. BJP is at present having majority and is the ruling party. Surat Mahanagar Sewa Sadan is one of the wealthiest municipal corporation in India which really works hard for Surat and providing necessary amenities. The Surat city also has maximum numbers of FLY-OVERS in India which also makes it as fly-over capital of India.